a river with a cliff and trees


Thurber’s Expertise

Going With
The Flow

Hydrogeology is the scientific discipline that focuses on the study of groundwater and its interactions with the surrounding geological environment. Groundwater is one of the components of the hydrologic cycle, which can sustainably be tapped as a source of drinking water, irrigation for agriculture, industrial processes, and various other human activities. It plays a crucial role in supporting ecosystems by providing baseflow to streams and wetlands, which in turn sustains aquatic life and vegetation. Groundwater is a valuable resource, but its extraction and management must be carefully managed to ensure its sustainability and protection from pollution or overuse.

Our team of hydrogeologists, environmental engineers, and environmental scientists helps our clients address groundwater regulatory requirements when planning, constructing, and operating infrastructure.

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Related Services

a water level gauge in a forest

We collect data in the field to gather information about local groundwater and surface water resources and hydrological processes. Our services include:

  • Groundwater testing and sampling
  • In-situ hydraulic conductivity and infiltration testing
  • Private well surveys
  • Aquifer pumping tests
  • Groundwater and surface water monitoring programs

a man standing on a machine

Our team combines our knowledge of hydrogeology with engineering principles to understand and solve problems related to groundwater resources and hydrological systems. Our services include:

  • Hydrogeological impact assessment and desktop studies
  • Construction dewatering assessments
  • Aquifer characterization
  • Groundwater/surface water interaction
  • Groundwater flow modeling
  • Contaminant hydrogeology
  • Environmental management plans
  • Water supply planning and design
  • Water well inventories
  • Hydrogeological peer reviews


Groundwater can pose a risk to construction projects, as a high groundwater table can result in unstable excavations. The use of watertight construction methods or the use of dewatering to remove the groundwater during construction are two ways of managing this risk. Where dewatering is implemented, we offer services to assess and mitigate various impacts including treating the water prior to appropriate disposal, evaluating potential structural settlement, addressing the mobilization of potentially contaminated groundwater, and impacts to local groundwater users and the environment.


Ontario relies heavily on groundwater for drinking water in both urban and rural areas. As such, Ontario has strong water protection programs in place. Water takings of more than 50,000 litres of water per day require either register on the Environmental Activity and Sector Registry (EASR) or in cases where larger quantities may be extracted, a Permit to Take Water (PTTW) from the Ministry of the Environment, Conservation and Parks. We support our clients in navigating the applications and permitting process. We also offer services in:

  • Municipal sewer discharge permits
  • Source water protection studies

Hydrogeology PROJECTS